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Volume 2

Review Articles


Zika virus outbreak: a new global threat

Zika virus is similar to Dengue, Yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses (WNS). Zika virus is belongs to a virus family Flaviviridae and the Genus, Flavivirus; which is mainly transmitted by day time-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as Aedes Aegyptic and Aedes Albopictus. Zika virus disease was first reported from the pacific in 2007, followed by in France Polynesia and Brazil in 2013 and 2015 respectively. Zika virus spread through bite of an infected Aedesmosquito, a same mosquito that transmits Dengue and Chikungunya. The virus has also been found in semen, thus sexual transmission is also documented. During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in blood and therefore transmitted through mosquito bites. Symptoms of disease mostly begins with mild fever, rash and joint pain or red eyes, followed by muscular pain and headache, within 3 to 12 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, and persist for a week. Zika virus can also spread from pregnant mother to her unborn baby.  In 2014, Brazil reported 147 cases of babies born with shrunken skulls, known as Microcephaly, a congenital deformation of the skull that compresses the infant’s brain. Until now, neither vaccine nor better preventive drug is available, therefore the best way to prevent Zika virus is to avoid mosquito bites whenever traveling to an area where Zika virus is present.

A. Rajendiran*, Praveen Katiyar
*University Institute of Pharmacy, CSJM University, Kanpur, U.P., India


Update on perinatal and pediatric vitamin D

Context: Vitamin D has emerged as a topic of great interest among researchers. Recent evidence indicates that today the world is facing vitamin D deficiency pandemic. Sensitizing pediatricians to widespread vitamin D deficiency in children and benefits accrued from it’s correction would go a long way as far as clinical practice and public health is concerned.
Evidence Acquisition: We performed a literature search using PubMed/medline, EMBASE and Science Direct databases indexed under the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms; “Vitamin D OR Vitamin D deficiency” combined with the terms “children” OR “pediatric” OR “child health”. The literature search was limited to articles in last 35 years and written in the English language. All articles having direct relevance to the present review were searched. Reference lists of all articles were also reviewed. Emphasis was placed on pediatric literature, although sentinel adult studies relevant to this article have been included. Latest editions of standard texts were also searched.
Results: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent throughout the world including India. Though some evidence suggests a role of hypovitaminosis D in pathophysiology of many clinical situations other than rickets and osteomalacia like autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, infections, cancers, fetal health, and exercise performance, some authorities feel there is a lack of unequivocal evidence in favour of nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.
Conclusions: Widespread subclinical and pre-rachitic vitamin D deficiency in children should be diagnosed by serum 25(OH)D levels and these levels should be maintained above 20 ng/mL to obtain optimal health benefits. There is a need for large randomized clinical trials to investigate the nonskeletal benefits of vitamin D deficiency.

  1. V. K. TANDON*

*Senior consultant, Chhatrapati Shahu ji Maharaj University, Kanpur


Research Articles


Nutritive value of value added products prepared from jamun seeds powder and fenugreek seeds

Jamun seeds and pulp powder have good nutritive value and are quite rich in carbohydrate. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of minerals, vitamins, phytonutrients, calories are very good source of soluble dietary fiber. Jamun seeds and fenugreek seeds were oven dried. Jamun seeds were ground and powder was prepared while fenugreek seeds were roasted. After that, final products were prepared using jamun seeds powder and fenugreek seeds viz. laddoo, momoz. These products were analyzed for its nutritive value by AOAC method. Nutritive value of prepared products revealed that product IV (60:24:16) incorporated sample of laddoo and momoz contained high amount of protein and fat, moderate amount of crude fiber and ash. Product-I (60:36:4) incorporated sample of laddoo and momoz contained high amount of carbohydrate.
On the basis of findings of present study authors suggests, how to prepare and take advantage of medicinal properties of value added products from jamun seeds powder and fenugreek seeds.

Vinita Singh* and Richa Mishra
*Assistant Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition College of Home Science, C.S.A.U.A. & T., Kanpur.


Packaging for convenience and maintaining nutritional value of foods

With the time, lives of consumers are getting busier and getting more demanding day by day. Due to lack of time, they look for convenient packaging which can save time, money and resources as well. So, to fulfill their demands, new trends are emerging in food packaging. Convenience packaging goes beyond the essential purpose of preserving and protecting the product. It includes resealable packets, small bags and pouches, shrink films and lidding films. Flexible packaging for convenience includes aluminium foils, films and papers. Packaging for maintaining and enhancing nutritional value of food includes edible films and coatings, made up of proteins, carbohydrates and waxes and lipids which protects the food as well as increases nutritional value of products.

Tanu Jain* and Shikha Bathla

*PhD Scholar, Department of Food & Nutrition, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab)-141004


Reliability and responsiveness of lysholm knee scoring scale and knee outcome survey activity of daily living scale (ADLS) for patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Objective: To Find out the Reliability and Responsiveness of Lysholm Knee scoring scale and Knee Outcome Survey Activity of Daily Living Scale in patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction . Study design : Prospective and Observational study with Repeated Measures Method: 30 Patients were included. The study included an initial assessment and a follow up assessment. On the initial assessment (24 to 48 hrs) after reconstruction, with the help of Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and Activity of Daily Living Scale, score were recorded. Second assessment was done after one day in order to estimate the test retest reliability and the follow assessment was done every month for consecutively 3 months .Data was analysed using spearman correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement. Results: Both the scales was statistically significant .but there was a higher value for activity of daily living scale (0.97 to 0.99) as compared to Lysholm knee scoring scale (0.78 to 0.88) and Activity of daily living scale had higher standard error of measurement (1.11) than Lysholm knee scoring scale Conclusion: The results obtained from the study shows that Activity of Daily Living Scale appears more useful instrument for measurement of functional limitations.

Sneha Narang Gandhi*, Suvarna Shyam Ganvir

*Guest Assistant Professor, CSJM University, Kanpur, Consultant, The Spastic Centre, Kanpur


Case Report


A case report of urolithiasis of patient with bilateral ureteric stones

Urolithiasis is one of the commonest disease of urinary system and a biggest challenge faced by urologists. In Ayurveda, urolithiasis is described as Ashmari & Acharya Sushruta has included it among the Asta Mahagada. In modern era, the medical treatment of urolithiasis is ineffective and lithotripsy or surgical techniques are invasive, costly and related with complications. Many Ayurvedic drugs have been employed to treat urinary stones. The rationale behind use of many of them is not well established. Therefore present study was inclined towards the disintegration and expulsion of stone along with relief in sign and symptoms of urolithiasis by Ayurvedic drug. A case report of a 58-years male, came at OPD of Shalya Tantra Department of Rishikul Govt. P.G. Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Haridwar, has been presented here having bilateral ureteric stones. He was complaining of continuous bilateral pain from loin to groin with mild urinary obstruction since 10 days. His USG report suggested a ureteric calculi of 12 mm size in Lt. ureter [Upper part] and a calculus of 10 mm. size in Rt. Ureter [Lower part]. He was treated with single drug therapy of ‘Kulattha kwath’ with 'Anupaan of Sharpunkha' [Tephrosia purpurea] and 'Sendha namak' [Rock salt] for three months. 100% relief in pain and urinary obstruction with complete expulsion of both ureteric stones was observed and no side effect seen. Variations in all haematological, biochemical, urine routine and microscopic values were observed within normal range.

Richa Sharma*

*P.G. Scholar, Department  of  Shalya  Tantra, Rishikul Govt. P.G. Ayurvedic  College  & Hospital, Haridwar, U.K., India